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  1. 90.00
    Lorna Vanderhaeghe GLUCOsmart 60 Veggie Caps

    Lorna Vanderhaeghe GLUCOsmart 60 Veggie Caps

    $90.00
    GLUCOsmart No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour No Artificial preservatives Colors Or Sugar Free N… Show More

    GLUCOsmart

    • No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour
    • No Artificial preservatives
    • Colors Or Sugar Free
    • No Corn
    • Dairy Free
    • Gluten Free
    • Soy Free
    • NON-GMO
    • Wheat Or Yeast Free
    • Vegan-Friendly
    • May Fights belly fat in men and women
    • May Aids weight loss
    • May Normalizes insulin and blood sugar
    • For pre-diabetics and type 2 diabetics
    • May Enhances serotonin, our happy hormone
    • May Reduces sugar cravings
    • May Halts polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
    • May Improves fertility and egg quality in those with PCOS
    • May Stops skin tags associated with pre-diabetes
    • May Controls elevated testosterone levels that cause male facial hair grown in women

    Exciting Chirositol Research

    Over 30 published studies performed at the Virginia Medical School have shown that Chirositol, a nutrient derived from carob, is an effective supplement for insulin-resistant conditions including weight gain, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, as well as for excess androgen (male hormone)-related concerns such as PCOS, acne and male facial hair growth in women.
    There is a connection between the expansion of our waist and changing hormones. The main hormone involved in the development of belly fat is insulin. Insulin is a powerful hormone that, when in excess, also causes an elevation in male hormones, particularly testosterone. Excess male hormones can cause male facial hair growth, acne and PCOS in women. Elevated insulin and blood sugar further leads to weight gain, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, diabetes and especially belly fat. An early sign of pre-diabetes is skin tags due to higher-than-normal blood sugar and insulin. Chirositol normalizes insulin and blood sugar levels, thereby assisting with all of the above conditions.

    Chirositol controls blood glucose levels, glucose storage and the action of glucose in the cell. It will not, however, cause low blood sugar in those with normal blood sugar levels. Chirositol also elevates our happy hormone, serotonin. Reduced serotonin or poor metabolism of serotonin is linked to increased sugar cravings. By balancing serotonin and blood sugar, Chirositol also helps to control appetite.

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant disorder with resulting elevated male hormones. Many fluid-filled cysts may be present in the ovaries, but some women do not have multiple cysts. In this disorder, excess circulating insulin and luteinizing hormone increase the production of male hormones that can cause acne and coarse facial hair growth in women. Oily skin may also be evident. Affecting up to 10 percent of the population, PCOS is the most common hormone dysfunction among women in their reproductive years.

    Symptoms often become apparent in puberty, when menstruation begins. Irregular menstrual periods with excess bleeding may occur, or PCOS can cause a lack of periods altogether. Because eggs are frequently not released, infertility is a major concern of women with PCOS. If pregnancy does occur, it often ends with first trimester miscarriage or is associated with gestational diabetes.

    Women with PCOS also are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. PCOS is a very challenging condition to treat and Chirositol effectively reduces excess male hormones, reduces weight and appetite, and normalizes ovulation, thereby improving fertility. If you have been battling PCOS, Chirositol is the solution.

    Show Less
  2. 53.99 55.99 3
    Lorna Vanderhaeghe GLUCOsmart 30 Veggie Caps

    Lorna Vanderhaeghe GLUCOsmart 30 Veggie Caps

    $55.99

    Sale Price: $53.99

    You Save 3%

    GLUCOsmart No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour No Artificial preservatives Colors Or Sugar Free N… Show More

    GLUCOsmart

    • No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour
    • No Artificial preservatives
    • Colors Or Sugar Free
    • No Corn
    • Dairy Free
    • Gluten Free
    • Soy Free
    • NON-GMO
    • Wheat Or Yeast Free
    • Vegan-Friendly
    • May Fights belly fat in men and women
    • May Aids weight loss
    • May Normalizes insulin and blood sugar
    • For pre-diabetics and type 2 diabetics
    • May Enhances serotonin, our happy hormone
    • May Reduces sugar cravings
    • May Halts polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
    • May Improves fertility and egg quality in those with PCOS
    • May Stops skin tags associated with pre-diabetes
    • May Controls elevated testosterone levels that cause male facial hair grown in women

    Exciting Chirositol Research

    Over 30 published studies performed at the Virginia Medical School have shown that Chirositol, a nutrient derived from carob, is an effective supplement for insulin-resistant conditions including weight gain, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, as well as for excess androgen (male hormone)-related concerns such as PCOS, acne and male facial hair growth in women.
    There is a connection between the expansion of our waist and changing hormones. The main hormone involved in the development of belly fat is insulin. Insulin is a powerful hormone that, when in excess, also causes an elevation in male hormones, particularly testosterone. Excess male hormones can cause male facial hair growth, acne and PCOS in women. Elevated insulin and blood sugar further leads to weight gain, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, diabetes and especially belly fat. An early sign of pre-diabetes is skin tags due to higher-than-normal blood sugar and insulin. Chirositol normalizes insulin and blood sugar levels, thereby assisting with all of the above conditions.

    Chirositol controls blood glucose levels, glucose storage and the action of glucose in the cell. It will not, however, cause low blood sugar in those with normal blood sugar levels. Chirositol also elevates our happy hormone, serotonin. Reduced serotonin or poor metabolism of serotonin is linked to increased sugar cravings. By balancing serotonin and blood sugar, Chirositol also helps to control appetite.

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin-resistant disorder with resulting elevated male hormones. Many fluid-filled cysts may be present in the ovaries, but some women do not have multiple cysts. In this disorder, excess circulating insulin and luteinizing hormone increase the production of male hormones that can cause acne and coarse facial hair growth in women. Oily skin may also be evident. Affecting up to 10 percent of the population, PCOS is the most common hormone dysfunction among women in their reproductive years.

    Symptoms often become apparent in puberty, when menstruation begins. Irregular menstrual periods with excess bleeding may occur, or PCOS can cause a lack of periods altogether. Because eggs are frequently not released, infertility is a major concern of women with PCOS. If pregnancy does occur, it often ends with first trimester miscarriage or is associated with gestational diabetes.

    Women with PCOS also are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. PCOS is a very challenging condition to treat and Chirositol effectively reduces excess male hormones, reduces weight and appetite, and normalizes ovulation, thereby improving fertility. If you have been battling PCOS, Chirositol is the solution.

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  3. 27.99
    Herbal Slim Garcinia Cambogia Ultimate Strength 80% 60 Veggie Caps

    Herbal Slim Garcinia Cambogia Ultimate Strength 80% 60 Veggie Caps

    $27.99
    Garcinia Cambogia 1500 Ultimate Strength 80% Reduces Appetite Blocks Fat Build-Up Storage Suppo… Show More

    Garcinia Cambogia 1500

    Ultimate Strength 80%

    • Reduces Appetite Blocks Fat Build-Up
    • Storage Supports Weight Loss

    How Does Garcinia Cambogia Work? There’s a phytochemical found in Garcinia, called hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and it has a dual effect on supporting weight loss. (1) HCA has the ability to reduce appetite by way of increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that affects mood and sleep patterns. Increasing serotonin levels has been shown to decrease food intake, enhance mood, and reduce weight gain. (2) HCA can support weight loss by inhibiting an enzyme called ATP-citrate-lyase (ACL). This enzyme helps convert excess carbohydrates (sugars) into fat in the body. When HCA inhibits ATP-citrate-lyase, fat buildup and storage is blocked in the body. GARCINIA CAMBOGIA 1500 delivers a 80% HCA extract, which is the highest percentage commercially today! Reduces Appetite Blocks Fat Build-Up & Storage Supports Weight Loss

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  4. 28.99
    Natural Factors CLA Tonalin® The SlimFactor® 1000mg - Bonus Size 120 Softgels

    Natural Factors CLA Tonalin® The SlimFactor® 1000mg - Bonus Size 120 Softgels

    $28.99
    CLA Tonalin® The SlimFactor® 1000 mg Helps increase lean muscle mass Helps dec… Show More

    CLA Tonalin®

    The SlimFactor® 1000 mg

    • Helps increase lean muscle mass
    • Helps decrease stored body fat
    • Promotes healthy weight loss
    • Positive affects on atherosclerosis

    Natural Factors CLA Tonalin The SlimFactor is sourced from safflower oil and is a natural fat burner, especially when combined with exercise and diet. CLA, or conjugated linoleic acid, helps increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat, without the unpleasant side effects of many diet aids.

    CLA, or conjugated linoleic acid, is a free fatty acid that comes from the essential unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid. Natural Factors Tonalin CLA provides the highest quality CLA available. Tonalin is proprietary blend of CLA with multiple clinical trials attesting to its effectiveness and safety.

    CLA works in several ways to promote effective weight loss. It helps block fat cells in the body from filling up by interfering with fat-storing enzymes. It also increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin, which encourages them to turn glucose into energy rather than storing it as fat. CLA helps burn fat by revving up muscle metabolism and increasing lean muscle mass. The more muscle the body has, the more calories it is capable of using, speeding up the fat burning process.

    Natural Factors Tonalin CLA is an excellent aid to permanent healthy weight loss, especially when combined with diet and exercise. It is sourced from environmentally sustainable natural safflower oil and highly purified. Each softgel provides 1000 mg of Tonalin’s proprietary CLA blend.

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  5. 45.99
    Lorna Vanderhaeghe CLA Plus 150 Softgels

    Lorna Vanderhaeghe CLA Plus 150 Softgels

    $45.99
    CLA plus CLA and Green Tea Extract No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour Colors Or Sugar Free No Co… Show More

    CLA plus

    CLA and Green Tea Extract

    • No Contain Irradiated Rice Flour
    • Colors Or Sugar Free
    • No Corn
    • Dairy Free
    • Gluten Free
    • NON-GMO
    • Wheat Or Yeast Free
    • May Aids weight loss
    • May Increases lean muscle
    • May Accelerates fat loss
    • May Controls blood sugar
    • May Powerful antioxidant
    • May Take with GLUCOsmart
    • Research shows 7lb weight loss in 90 days

    Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid supplement that effectively increases lean muscle mass and enhances fat loss. In a 90-day, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study published in 2000 in the Journal of Nutrition, CLA users experienced fat loss with an average weight reduction of seven pounds and an increase in lean muscle. There was a 20 percent decrease in body fat. CLA also stops fat from coming back once dieting stops, research has found. According to The Journal of International Medical Research in 2001, those taking CLA who also exercise at the same time increase fat loss and increase lean muscle faster and with lower amounts of CLA. Incredibly, CLA has also been found to help with weight loss even if people don't change their lifestyle. In June 2009, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported on 45 postmenopausal women who were obese and who had type 2 diabetes. They took eight grams (8,000mg) of CLA per day with food for 32 weeks. The women were told not to diet or exercise any differently during the trial. The researchers found that CLA significantly reduced the women's body mass index (BMI) and resulted in a four-pound weight loss.

    Green Tea For Weight Loss

    Both green and black tea are derived from the same plant Camelia sinensis. The manufacturing process is what makes them different. Green tea is produced by lightly steaming the fresh-cut leaf, so it is not fermented and provides high levels of compounds called polyphenols that are known for their powerful healing effects. One study revealed that participants who took three green tea extract capsules daily increased their fat burning without accelerating their heart rate. The capsules safely melted fat away. A 2010 study in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition involved 35 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. (Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of factors that increase risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes; these factors include a large waistline, low "good" HDL cholesterol, as well as high blood pressure, high triglycerides (blood fats) and high blood sugar levels.) The participants consumed two capsules daily of green tea extract for eight weeks. The green tea was standardized to provide a daily dose of 450 mg of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). At the end of eight weeks, the green tea group experienced significant decreases in body weight and BMI compared to the control group. Green tea supplementation was also associated with a decrease in "bad" LDL cholesterol and an improved LDL-to-HDL (good cholesterol) ratio. Do not use de-caffeinated green tea as it is the caffeine along with the other constituents of the green tea that effectively enhances fat-burning, thus improving fat loss. The combination of CLA and green tea extract are approved by Health Canada for weight loss.

    Take CLA Plus Along With GLUCOsmart

    Belly fat is a stubborn problem. No end of sit-ups and crunches make it disappear. Starving and running on the treadmill for hours every week doesn't seem to budge belly fat either. We know there is a connection between our expanding waistlines and our hormones. The main hormone contributing to belly fat is insulin. Insulin is a powerful hormone that, when in excess, also causes an elevation in circulating male hormones in women, causing male facial hair growth and acne too. In men, elevated insulin results in a beer belly and breasts.

    Elevated insulin promotes weight gain, high cholesterol, diabetes and excess belly fat. Skin tags are an early sign of pre-diabetes. Thankfully, busting belly fat and normalizing insulin just got easier. The nutrient Chirositol (pronounced "kur-au-sitol"), researched in over 30 studies at the Virginia Medical School, works for prediabetes, Type-2 diabetes, excess male hormone-related conditions such as acne, PCOS, and male facial hair growth in women. Chirositol has also been shown to reduce appetite and improve our happy hormone serotonin, which halts sugar cravings and controls appetite. But where Chirositol really shines is in fighting belly fat in both men and women.

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  6. 13.49
    Natural Factors Garcinia Cambogia 750mg 90 Tablets

    Natural Factors Garcinia Cambogia 750mg 90 Tablets

    $13.49
    Garcinia Cambogia 750 mg Reduces appetite by providing a feeling of fullness Helps curb food… Show More

    Garcinia Cambogia 750 mg

    • Reduces appetite by providing a feeling of fullness
    • Helps curb food cravings
    • Inhibits the conversion of carbohydrates into fat
    • Increases fat burning
    • Non-GMO and stimulant free

    Natural Factors Garcinia Cambogia helps you lose weight safely and naturally. It is guaranteed to contain 60% hydroxycitric acid (HCA), shown in clinical studies to inhibit the conversion of carbohydrates into fat. This causes the body to use existing fat stores. HCA may also increase serotonin levels, which helps control appetite and food cravings.

    In North America, roughly two-thirds of adults are either overweight or obese. Excess body weight increases the risk of many serious health conditions, making weight management an important health goal. To support them in achieving healthy and sustainable weight loss, many people choose natural health products such as Garcinia cambogia, a fruit in the tamarind family renowned for its ability to help curb food cravings and increase fat metabolism.

    Garcinia cambogia is a rich source of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a compound shown to inhibit citrate lyase, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of carbohydrates into fat. HCA helps prevent new body fat formation and inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides.

    Studies have found that Garcinia cambogia helps with weight reduction by promoting a feeling of fullness, which helps reduce caloric intake. This ability to increase satiety may result from an increase in serotonin levels. Low levels of serotonin affect appetite control and eating behaviour. This natural extract has also been shown to support blood glucose and blood lipid management.

    Natural Factors Garcinia Cambogia, standardized to contain 60% HCA, is suitable for vegetarians and vegans, and offers effective, stimulant-free support for weight management in combination with a healthy diet and regular exercise.

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  7. 37.99
    Sisu Tonalin CLA 1250mg 120 Softgels

    Sisu Tonalin CLA 1250mg 120 Softgels

    $37.99
    Tonalin CLA 1250 mg High-potency CLA that promotes fat loss and lean muscle gain Non GMO Gluten… Show More

    Tonalin CLA 1250 mg

    High-potency CLA that promotes fat loss and lean muscle gain

    • Non GMO
    • Gluten free
    • Dairy Free
    • Soy Free
    • Highest concentration CLA
    • Tonalin® brand used in the clinical studies
    • Promotes fat loss and lean muscle gain

    Promote fat loss and lean muscle gain with Sisu Tonalin® CLA. Derived from pure, non-GMO safflower oil with the highest concentration of conjugated linoleic acid, this supplement can be a powerful weight-management ally when combined with a balanced diet and regular exercise. Tonalin CLA has been proven helpful in decreasing abdominal fat and is safe for long-term use.

    The body converts food into energy (glucose) and if glucose is burned as it is created, the body’s stores of fat tissue do not increase. When food energy is consumed more quickly than it can be burned, it is converted into fat and stored. For many people, fat loss is difficult to achieve, and some support is needed to facilitate weight loss and to promote healthy weight management. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid that supports fat loss and lean muscle gain. It helps to increase the rate at which the body burns energy and decrease the rate at which the body converts energy to fat. CLA is naturally found in meat and dairy products from grass-fed animals, however changes in the ways livestock are raised and foods are processed have reduced the amount of CLA we consume in our diet.

    Product Highlights

    • Standardized to contain 72-82% conjugated linoleic acid
    • CLA has been proven to promote fat loss and lean muscle gain, and increase energy expenditure
    • Lean tissue raises metabolism by increasing the rate at which the body burns energy
    • Lean muscle tissue is more compact and denser than fat tissue, and replacing fat with lean mass results in a slimmer silhouette and a more toned appearance
    • Tonalin® CLA has been proven helpful in decreasing abdominal fat
    • At least one month is needed for Tonalin® CLA to begin taking effect
    • Safe for long-term use

    Sisu Tonalin® CLA is derived from pure, non-GMO safflower oil with the highest concentration of conjugated linoleic acid. When combined with a balanced diet and regular exercise, high-potency Sisu Tonalin® CLA can be a powerful ally to help you lose body fat and maintain optimal weight.

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  8. 33.99 39.99 15
    NOW CLA 800mg 180 Softgels

    NOW CLA 800mg 180 Softgels

    $39.99

    Sale Price: $33.99

    You Save 15%

    Description:   CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a distinctive omega-6 fatty acid, and on… Show More
    Description:
     
    CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a distinctive omega-6 fatty acid, and one of the most popular weight management/body composition supplements ever introduced to the health seeking public. Long before the days of heavily processed meats and cheese, the modern diet contained much greater quantities of CLA. Today, most Americans consume less than one gram per day from food. This makes dietary supplementation one of the only effective ways to obtain ideal levels of this important fatty acid. The effectiveness of CLA will not diminish over time, and there is no need to cycle on/off the product. NOW® CLA 800 mg will garner the best results when used by individuals who exercise regularly, follow a sensible diet, and take the product consistently.*
     
    Suggested Use:
     
     As a dietary supplement, take 3 softgels 1-2  times daily, preferably 1 hour before meals.
     
    Supplement Facts Serving Size 3 SoftgelsServings Per Container 60   Amount Per Serving % Daily Value Calories   27     Calories from Fat   27     Total Fat   3 g   5%   Saturated Fat   0 g   0%   Polyunsaturated Fat   3 g     Safflower Oil (High Linoleic Acid)   3.0 g (3000 mg)     Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)   2.4 g (2,400 mg)     Cis-9, Trans-11 Isomer   1.11 g (1,110 mg)     Trans-10, Cis-12 Isomer   1.11 g (1,110 mg)     Other Isomers   180 mg     * Percent Daily Values are based on 2,000 calorie diet.† Daily Value not established.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Other Ingredients:Gelatin, Glycerin, Water and Natural Color.
     
    Free of: sugar, salt, starch, yeast, wheat, gluten, corn, soy,  milk, egg, or preservatives.Warnings: Please discard the inedible freshness packet enclosed. 
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  9. 23.99
    Himalaya Garcinia 60 Capsules

    Himalaya Garcinia 60 Capsules

    $23.99
    Garcinia's plant compound known as hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which inhibits ATP citrate lyase, a key… Show More

    Garcinia's plant compound known as hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which inhibits ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme that converts carbohydrates into fatty acids such as cholesterol and triglycerides.

    It also supports normal serotonin levels in the brain that relate to appetite and satiety, which makes Garcinia an important addition to a healthy weight loss program that includes a healthy diet and regular exercise program.

    Additionally, Garcinia can make your exercise and diet more successful by supporting normal blood sugar balance and cholesterol levels that are both already within the normal range.

    To support your body's normal weight level and metabolism of lipids, give Garcinia a try! Safe for long-term use.* 

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  10. 22.99
    Allmax CLA-95 90 Softgels

    Allmax CLA-95 90 Softgels

    $22.99
    AllMax Nutrition CLA 95 Shown In Numerous Studies To Help Reduce Body Fat! Conjugated Lino… Show More

    AllMax Nutrition CLA 95

    Shown In Numerous Studies To Help Reduce Body Fat!

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid – CLA95

    THE SAFEST AND MOST NATURAL WAY TO LOSE WEIGHT!

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a remarkable dietary supplement derived from sources like safflower and sunflower oil, and found naturally in grass fed meats and dairy as well as the yolk of an egg. CLA works to reduce body fat by preventing fat accumulation in fat cells. Fat normally enters the fat cell through a door that is controlled by an enzyme that acts as the key.

    • 95% ACTIVE CLA Isomers per Capsule
    • THE #1 HIGHEST CLA Concentration You Can Buy
    • DERIVED From Pure Safflower Oil

    By acting on this enzyme, CLA keeps the door locked. When the door is locked, fat utilization by the cell is limited and any new fat cell growth is restricted. The less fat present in the cells, the smaller and less mature they become. This helps to reduce the level of fat in your body. The increased breakdown of fat helps to fuel and preserve muscle mass, which in turn increases lean muscle mass.

    LEANER BODIES BURN MORE CALORIES.

    THE SCIENCE

    Studies show that supplementation with CLA aids in weight management.

    Scientists now believe that CLA may have a unique effect on body fat: It inhibits the transport mechanism of fat into fat cells, reducing the size of these cells. Some studies have indicated that this may lead to an improved body composition.

    The most fascinating bioactivity of CLA95™ is its effect on the body’s fat to muscle ratio. There is substantial research on CLA showing that it may lead to decreased body fat, while maintaining lean body mass.

     

    IMPROVE YOUR BODY FAT TO MUSCLE RATIO

    The results of one six-month clinical trial showed that the reduction in fat mass primarily occurs in the places that improve overall body shape and health most – the abdomen and thighs.

    When it comes to those who wish to improve their body shape and appearance via weight loss, the abdomen and legs are usually a priority target for fat reduction. In the clinical trial, the CLA95™ group showed a marked reduction in hip-to-waist ratio, as well as in overall body weight and BMI compared to the placebo group.

    THE ALLMAX DIFFERENCE

    ALLMAX CLA95 contains a full 95% active CLA isomers; 950 mg of pure CLA per 1000 mg softgel capsule. CLA works to reduce body fat by preventing fat accumulation in fat cells and has been found to promote the body’s natural fat metabolism making it easier to get your body in shape.

    ALLMAX CLA95 is available in 2 sizes – 90 and 150 softgels.

    Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid and is naturally present in ruminant milk, ruminant meat and in human breast milk.

    1. CLA refers to a class of isomers of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid, of which two of the CLA isomers [cis-9, trans-11 (c-9,t-11) and trans-10, cis-12 (t-10,c-12) CLA] have shown most physiological effects.
    2. The concentrations of CLA in ruminant-derived products range from 3 to 7 mg CLA/g fat depending on the source and manufacturing process. Estimated average daily intake of CLA from these dietary sources ranges from 0.10 up to 1 gram of CLA and varies for different countries.
    3. CLA also naturally occurs in vegetable oils in which the two active CLA isomers are present in equal amounts.
    4. Physiological effects of CLA have been observed in several animal and human studies. The studies were performed with mixtures of the CLA isomers that contain mostly c-9,t-11 CLA and t-10,c-12 CLA in roughly equal amounts or as enriched forms of each CLA isomer. Several studies show positive health effects for CLA, such as an improvement of the immune response. However, most animal and human studies have demonstrated that CLA may reduce body fat mass and increases lean body mass.

    The type of fat or fatty acid is a determinant of the efficiency of energy storage. Unsaturated fatty acids have in general a lower efficiency of energy storage than saturated fatty acids and result in a lower proportion of body fat. For example, fish oil which contains the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and α- and y-linoleic acids have been documented to lower body fat in animals.

    This lower efficiency of energy storage is mediated by enhanced energy expenditure. The enhanced energy expenditure may be the result of the following events:

    • Long chain unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially oxidized in the peroxisomes instead of the mitochondria. Oxidation of fatty acids in the peroxisomes results in the formation of less ATP, which results in a greater energy expenditure.
    • The incorporation of more unsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acids, into the phospholipids of the inner membranes of the mitochondria may result in membranes that are more permeable for protons which leads to proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane. As a result, the proton motive force will generate less ATP, less energy will be stored in the form of ATP, and more energy is lost as heat.

    CLA molecular formula

    • Unsaturated fatty acids may act as ligands for transcription factors (e.g. PPARs) and subsequently affect the enzymes for oxidation or synthesis of fatty acids and the uncoupling proteins (UCP). By means of this mechanism, unsaturated fatty acids may enhance, for example, the oxidation of fatty acids and upregulate the UCPs to dissipate the extra energy generated by the increased oxidation.
    • Thus, the body’s fat-lowering properties of unsaturated fatty acids is mediated by a lower efficiency of energy storage and an increased energy expenditure or heat production. Further, it appears that these effects on body fat are more pronounced when the metabolic rate of the species studied is higher. For instance, mice have a 7 times higher metabolic rate than humans, and various studies have shown that the body fat lowering effect of CLA in mice is also considerably higher than in humans.

    Mechanism of Action

    Several mechanisms of action in CLA have been proposed. The effects of CLA may not be explained by one single mechanism, since the two active isomers of CLA induce different effects. One of the mechanisms proposed to explain the effects of CLA on body composition is via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). PPAR is a member of the nuclear receptor super family and is a ligand activated transcription factor that affects gene expression in a tissue, sex and species-specific manner.

    Specific PPAR responsive elements have been identified in the regulatory regions of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. PPAR is forming a complex with another nuclear receptor family, the retinoid X receptor (RXR). This complex binds to the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) of a target gene and modifies its expression. Various types of PPAR (α, γ1, γ2, and δ) have been identified in rodents and humans.

    PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and may play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism. Since most of the target genes of PPAR are involved in the control of lipid and energy metabolism, and since PPAR is activated by lipids such as fatty acids, it is evident that the family of PPAR plays a crucial role in translating nutritional signals into changes in gene expression. PPARα is expressed predominantly in liver, heart, kidney, intestinal mucosa and brown adipose tissue, thus tissues with high catabolic rates for fatty acids and peroxisomal metabolism. PPARy is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and has been linked to adipocyte differentiation.

    So far, PPRE has been identified as the promotor of genes of various peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes, and it has been demonstrated that the expression of these genes is under the control of PPAR. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate PPAR more than saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids; fatty acids and eicosanoids are ligands of PPAR to induce its DNA binding and expression of target genes. The role of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is demonstrated in several studies. Roche et al showed that the c-9,t-11 CLA isomer inhibit the SREBP expression in the liver.

    Upon activation by fatty acids and drugs that affect lipid metabolism, PPAR controls the expression of genes implicated in intra and extra cellular lipid metabolism, most notably those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation. In animals, brown adipose tissue (brown fat) also plays a role in lipid and energy metabolism. This tissue contains, unlike typical (white) adipose tissue, numerous mitochondria with cytochromes that cause its brown color.

    The mechanism of heat generation in brown fat involves the regulated uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in their mitochondria. These mitochondria in brown fat contain the uncoupling protein (UCP1) that is absent in the mitochondria of other tissues and which act as a channel to control the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to protons.

    Across the inner mitochondrial membrane, a proton gradient is generated (caused by the energy released by oxidation) and the free energy sequestered by the electrochemical gradient powers the synthesis of ATP. Recently, a homologue of the uncoupling protein UCP1 has been cloned – UCP2 and UCP-3 – which is present in skeletal muscles. Several studies have been done to examine the role of these uncoupling proteins on metabolic rate and obesity in humans. Also the role of exercise on energy metabolism has been linked to UCP3.

    It has been hypothesized that UCP3 may function as a fatty acid transporter across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has been shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and UCP2 mRNA levels increased in isolated adipocytes from CLA fed mice compared to control mice. Because it is known that TNF-α induces apoptosis of adipocytes and upregulates UCP2 mRNA, a marked increase of TNF-α mRNA with an increase of UCP2 mRNA in adipocytes explains the CLA-induced apoptosis according to Tsuboyama-Kasoka et al. UCP2 is the predominant uncoupling protein in white adipose tissue, and an increase in UCP2 may contribute to increased energy expenditure by CLA feeding.

    In Vitro Effects

    For investigating the possible effect of an ingredient on fat cells, a cell line of fat cells (for example the 3T3-L1) is used extensively. These cells typically grow in a culture medium and are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with CLA inhibited differentiation of the fat cell in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that fat reduction observed in in-vivo studies caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both cell growth (proliferation) and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals. Park et al. 6 found in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, that the t-10,c-12 CLA isomer is responsible for the observed reduction of the lipoprotein lipase activity and the intracellular triacylglycerol and glycerol, and enhanced glycerol release into the medium. The c-9,t-11 CLA isomer did not affect these biochemical activities. The authors, therefore, suggest that CLA-associated body composition changes result from feeding the t-10,c-12 CLA isomer.

    CLA Geographic

    Supplemental Solutions

    The typical North American diet does not deliver enough conjugated linoleic acid to get the weight loss benefits. To get the level used in research studies (1,000 mg with meals three times daily) you would have to eat about 5.8 pounds of fresh ground beef, 53 ounces of American cheese or 1.7 gallons of vanilla ice cream! Simply stated, you are not likely to get the amount needed for weight loss from your diet. Fortunately, scientists are able to convert the linoleic acid of pure safflower oil into CLA to make it available as a nutritional supplement.

    While side-effects or drug interactions with conjugated linoleic acid supplementation are very rare among heatlhy adults, its effects during pregnancy and lactation have not been sufficiently evaluated and it should not be used at these times.

    Bioavailability

    CLA has been identified in human adipose tissue, serum, bile and duodenal juices The primary CLA in human serum lipids is the c-9,t-11 isomer. The fatty acid composition of blood lipids and adipose tissue is markedly influenced by the fatty acid composition of dietary fat. In addition, the time required for changes in dietary fat to be reflected in plasma lipids is not exactly known. Huang et al. showed that short-term (4-week) consumption of a diet supplemented with cheddar cheese (112 g/day, providing about 180 mg CLA) significantly increased plasma CLA concentrations by 19-27%.

    Research Study

    Michael T. Murray is a graduate, faculty member and trustee of Bastyr University in Seattle, Washington. He has written over 20 books, including the best-selling Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine.

    Source: Alive Issue:224, June 2001

    Original Research Communication:

    “Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1-y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans.”

    Researchers: Jean-Michel Gaullier, Johan Halse, Kjetil Høye, Knut Kristiansen, Hans Fagertun, Hogne Vik and Ola Gudmundse from the Scandinavian Clinical Research AS (JMG, KK, and OG) and the Scandinavian Statistical Services AS (HF), Kjeller, Norway; the Betanien Medical Center, Oslo (JH); the Helsetorget Medical Center, Elverum, Norway (KH); and the Matforsk (Norwegian Food Research Institute), Ås, Norway (HV).

    Background:

    Short-term trials showed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may reduce body fat mass (BFM) and increase lean body mass (LBM), but the long-term effect of CLA was not examined.

    Objective:

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the 1-y effect of CLA on body composition and safety in healthy overweight adults consuming an ad libitum diet.

    Design:

    Male and female volunteers (n = 180) with body mass indexes (in kg/m2) of 25–30 were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: CLA-free fatty acid (FFA), CLA-triacylglycerol, or placebo (olive oil). Change in BFM, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the effects of CLA on LBM, adverse events and safety variables.

    Results:

    Mean (± SD) BFM in the CLA-triacylglycerol and CLA-FFA groups was 8.7 ± 9.1% and 6.9 ± 9.1%, respectively, lower than that in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Subjects receiving CLA-FFA had 1.8 ± 4.3% greater LBM than did subjects receiving placebo (P = 0.002). These changes were not associated with diet or exercise. LDL increased in the CLA-FFA group (P = 0.008), HDL decreased in the CLA-triacylglycerol group (P = 0.003), and lipoprotein(a) increased in both CLA groups (P < 0.001) compared with month 0. Fasting blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged in all 3 groups. Glycated hemoglobin rose in all groups from month 0 concentrations, but there was no significant difference between groups. Adverse events did not differ significantly between groups.

    Conclusion:

    Long-term supplementation with CLA-FFA or CLA-triacylglycerol reduces BFM in healthy overweight adults.

    Source:

    Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, Kristiansen K, Fagertun H, Vik H, Gudmundsen O. (2003). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 year reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 1118-1125


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