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Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the primary phospholipid (also known as phosphatide) found in lecithin.1 It is an important component of cell membranes and is highly concentrated in hepatocytes.2,3 All lipoproteins are rich in PC, and are primarily produced in the liver.3 Normal PC levels may help to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation as PC is necessary for the production and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides from the liver.2,3 PC deficiencies may lead to VLDL and triglyceride buildup in the liver, which negatively affects liver function and health.3 Recent in vitro studies show that hepatocytes also overproduce free radicals when grown in choline deficient medium; excess reactive oxygen species production can lead to DNA damage and impair liver function.4 In a randomized, double blind trial, 57 healthy adults were fed diets low in choline. After six weeks of depletion, fatty liver, liver damage and;or muscle damage was observed among 68% of participants. 5 When choline was replenished in the diet, the organ dysfunction was resolved in all participants within six weeks.5 NPN 80006244 10526 1. Patterson KY, Bhagwat SA, Williams JR, Howe JC, Holden JM. USDA database for the choline content of common foods: release two. January 2008 (http:;;www.ars.usda.gov;SP2UserFiles;Place;80400525;Data;Choline;Choln02.pdf). 2. Duric, M, Sivanesan, S, Bakovic, M. Phosphatidylcholine functional foods and nutraceuticals: A potential approach to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2012; 114: 389-398. 3. Cole, LK, Vance, JE, Vance, DE. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein metabolism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2012; 1821: 754-761. 4. Zeisel, SH. Dietary choline deficiency causes DNA strand breaks and alters epigenetic marks on DNA and histones. Mutation Research. 2012; 733: 34- 38. 5. Fischer, LM, daCosta, KA, Kwock, L, Stewart, PW, Lu, TS, Stabler, SP, Allen, RH, Zeisel, SH. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 1275-85.
This is the brand my naturopath used quite frequently and I have found it to be the only PhosCholine product that makes a difference with liver issues. Before finding Genestra Brands, in particular PC, my liver and gallbladder seemed to be in pain all the time.
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