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Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a remarkable dietary supplement derived from sources like safflower and sunflower oil, and found naturally in grass fed meats and dairy as well as the yolk of an egg. CLA works to reduce body fat by preventing fat accumulation in fat cells. Fat normally enters the fat cell through a door that is controlled by an enzyme that acts as the key.
By acting on this enzyme, CLA keeps the door locked. When the door is locked, fat utilization by the cell is limited and any new fat cell growth is restricted. The less fat present in the cells, the smaller and less mature they become. This helps to reduce the level of fat in your body. The increased breakdown of fat helps to fuel and preserve muscle mass, which in turn increases lean muscle mass.
LEANER BODIES BURN MORE CALORIES.
LEANER BODIES BURN MORE CALORIES.
Studies show that supplementation with CLA aids in weight management.
Scientists now believe that CLA may have a unique effect on body fat: It inhibits the transport mechanism of fat into fat cells, reducing the size of these cells. Some studies have indicated that this may lead to an improved body composition.
The most fascinating bioactivity of CLA95™ is its effect on the body’s fat to muscle ratio. There is substantial research on CLA showing that it may lead to decreased body fat, while maintaining lean body mass.
The results of one six-month clinical trial showed that the reduction in fat mass primarily occurs in the places that improve overall body shape and health most – the abdomen and thighs.
When it comes to those who wish to improve their body shape and appearance via weight loss, the abdomen and legs are usually a priority target for fat reduction. In the clinical trial, the CLA95™ group showed a marked reduction in hip-to-waist ratio, as well as in overall body weight and BMI compared to the placebo group.
ALLMAX CLA95 contains a full 95% active CLA isomers; 950 mg of pure CLA per 1000 mg softgel capsule. CLA works to reduce body fat by preventing fat accumulation in fat cells and has been found to promote the body’s natural fat metabolism making it easier to get your body in shape.
ALLMAX CLA95 is available in 2 sizes – 90 and 150 softgels.
Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid and is naturally present in ruminant milk, ruminant meat and in human breast milk.
The type of fat or fatty acid is a determinant of the efficiency of energy storage. Unsaturated fatty acids have in general a lower efficiency of energy storage than saturated fatty acids and result in a lower proportion of body fat. For example, fish oil which contains the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and α- and y-linoleic acids have been documented to lower body fat in animals.
This lower efficiency of energy storage is mediated by enhanced energy expenditure. The enhanced energy expenditure may be the result of the following events:
Several mechanisms of action in CLA have been proposed. The effects of CLA may not be explained by one single mechanism, since the two active isomers of CLA induce different effects. One of the mechanisms proposed to explain the effects of CLA on body composition is via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). PPAR is a member of the nuclear receptor super family and is a ligand activated transcription factor that affects gene expression in a tissue, sex and species-specific manner.
Specific PPAR responsive elements have been identified in the regulatory regions of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. PPAR is forming a complex with another nuclear receptor family, the retinoid X receptor (RXR). This complex binds to the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) of a target gene and modifies its expression. Various types of PPAR (α, γ1, γ2, and δ) have been identified in rodents and humans.
PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and may play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism. Since most of the target genes of PPAR are involved in the control of lipid and energy metabolism, and since PPAR is activated by lipids such as fatty acids, it is evident that the family of PPAR plays a crucial role in translating nutritional signals into changes in gene expression. PPARα is expressed predominantly in liver, heart, kidney, intestinal mucosa and brown adipose tissue, thus tissues with high catabolic rates for fatty acids and peroxisomal metabolism. PPARy is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and has been linked to adipocyte differentiation.
So far, PPRE has been identified as the promotor of genes of various peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes, and it has been demonstrated that the expression of these genes is under the control of PPAR. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate PPAR more than saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids; fatty acids and eicosanoids are ligands of PPAR to induce its DNA binding and expression of target genes. The role of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is demonstrated in several studies. Roche et al showed that the c-9,t-11 CLA isomer inhibit the SREBP expression in the liver.
Upon activation by fatty acids and drugs that affect lipid metabolism, PPAR controls the expression of genes implicated in intra and extra cellular lipid metabolism, most notably those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation. In animals, brown adipose tissue (brown fat) also plays a role in lipid and energy metabolism. This tissue contains, unlike typical (white) adipose tissue, numerous mitochondria with cytochromes that cause its brown color.
The mechanism of heat generation in brown fat involves the regulated uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in their mitochondria. These mitochondria in brown fat contain the uncoupling protein (UCP1) that is absent in the mitochondria of other tissues and which act as a channel to control the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to protons.
Across the inner mitochondrial membrane, a proton gradient is generated (caused by the energy released by oxidation) and the free energy sequestered by the electrochemical gradient powers the synthesis of ATP. Recently, a homologue of the uncoupling protein UCP1 has been cloned – UCP2 and UCP-3 – which is present in skeletal muscles. Several studies have been done to examine the role of these uncoupling proteins on metabolic rate and obesity in humans. Also the role of exercise on energy metabolism has been linked to UCP3.
It has been hypothesized that UCP3 may function as a fatty acid transporter across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has been shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and UCP2 mRNA levels increased in isolated adipocytes from CLA fed mice compared to control mice. Because it is known that TNF-α induces apoptosis of adipocytes and upregulates UCP2 mRNA, a marked increase of TNF-α mRNA with an increase of UCP2 mRNA in adipocytes explains the CLA-induced apoptosis according to Tsuboyama-Kasoka et al. UCP2 is the predominant uncoupling protein in white adipose tissue, and an increase in UCP2 may contribute to increased energy expenditure by CLA feeding.
For investigating the possible effect of an ingredient on fat cells, a cell line of fat cells (for example the 3T3-L1) is used extensively. These cells typically grow in a culture medium and are induced to differentiate by hormonal treatment. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with CLA inhibited differentiation of the fat cell in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that fat reduction observed in in-vivo studies caused by CLA treatment may be attributed to its inhibition of both cell growth (proliferation) and differentiation of preadipocytes in animals. Park et al. 6 found in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, that the t-10,c-12 CLA isomer is responsible for the observed reduction of the lipoprotein lipase activity and the intracellular triacylglycerol and glycerol, and enhanced glycerol release into the medium. The c-9,t-11 CLA isomer did not affect these biochemical activities. The authors, therefore, suggest that CLA-associated body composition changes result from feeding the t-10,c-12 CLA isomer.
The typical North American diet does not deliver enough conjugated linoleic acid to get the weight loss benefits. To get the level used in research studies (1,000 mg with meals three times daily) you would have to eat about 5.8 pounds of fresh ground beef, 53 ounces of American cheese or 1.7 gallons of vanilla ice cream! Simply stated, you are not likely to get the amount needed for weight loss from your diet. Fortunately, scientists are able to convert the linoleic acid of pure safflower oil into CLA to make it available as a nutritional supplement.
While side-effects or drug interactions with conjugated linoleic acid supplementation are very rare among heatlhy adults, its effects during pregnancy and lactation have not been sufficiently evaluated and it should not be used at these times.
CLA has been identified in human adipose tissue, serum, bile and duodenal juices The primary CLA in human serum lipids is the c-9,t-11 isomer. The fatty acid composition of blood lipids and adipose tissue is markedly influenced by the fatty acid composition of dietary fat. In addition, the time required for changes in dietary fat to be reflected in plasma lipids is not exactly known. Huang et al. showed that short-term (4-week) consumption of a diet supplemented with cheddar cheese (112 g/day, providing about 180 mg CLA) significantly increased plasma CLA concentrations by 19-27%.
Michael T. Murray is a graduate, faculty member and trustee of Bastyr University in Seattle, Washington. He has written over 20 books, including the best-selling Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine.
Source: Alive Issue:224, June 2001
Original Research Communication:
“Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1-y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans.”
Researchers: Jean-Michel Gaullier, Johan Halse, Kjetil Høye, Knut Kristiansen, Hans Fagertun, Hogne Vik and Ola Gudmundse from the Scandinavian Clinical Research AS (JMG, KK, and OG) and the Scandinavian Statistical Services AS (HF), Kjeller, Norway; the Betanien Medical Center, Oslo (JH); the Helsetorget Medical Center, Elverum, Norway (KH); and the Matforsk (Norwegian Food Research Institute), Ås, Norway (HV).
Short-term trials showed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may reduce body fat mass (BFM) and increase lean body mass (LBM), but the long-term effect of CLA was not examined.
The objective of the study was to ascertain the 1-y effect of CLA on body composition and safety in healthy overweight adults consuming an ad libitum diet.
Male and female volunteers (n = 180) with body mass indexes (in kg/m2) of 25–30 were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: CLA-free fatty acid (FFA), CLA-triacylglycerol, or placebo (olive oil). Change in BFM, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the effects of CLA on LBM, adverse events and safety variables.
Mean (± SD) BFM in the CLA-triacylglycerol and CLA-FFA groups was 8.7 ± 9.1% and 6.9 ± 9.1%, respectively, lower than that in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Subjects receiving CLA-FFA had 1.8 ± 4.3% greater LBM than did subjects receiving placebo (P = 0.002). These changes were not associated with diet or exercise. LDL increased in the CLA-FFA group (P = 0.008), HDL decreased in the CLA-triacylglycerol group (P = 0.003), and lipoprotein(a) increased in both CLA groups (P < 0.001) compared with month 0. Fasting blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged in all 3 groups. Glycated hemoglobin rose in all groups from month 0 concentrations, but there was no significant difference between groups. Adverse events did not differ significantly between groups.
Long-term supplementation with CLA-FFA or CLA-triacylglycerol reduces BFM in healthy overweight adults.
Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, Kristiansen K, Fagertun H, Vik H, Gudmundsen O. (2003). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 year reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 1118-1125
* Percent daily values are based on a 2000 calorie diet
† Daily Value not established
As a weight loss aid, take 1 capsule of CLA95 three times daily immediately prior to meals. Always make sure to read the complete label before starting any new supplement.
Great to take while training to melty the fat away quickly. Easy to take and doesn't have much of a taste. A must if looking to cut down.
If you are looking to cut down for the summer and could use a little help CLA works great. Allmax's brand is always a great bang for your buck and to me is as effective as most other cla brands. It is safe and easy to take.
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